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Common-Knowledge Attacks on Democracy by Henry Farrell, Bruce Schneier :: SSRN
"Existing approaches to cybersecurity emphasize either international state-to-state logics (such as deterrence theory) or the integrity of individual information systems. Neither provides a good understanding of new “soft cyber” attacks that involve the manipulation of expectations and common understandings. We argue that scaling up computer security arguments to the level of the state, so that the entire polity is treated as an information system with associated attack surfaces and threat models, provides the best immediate way to understand these attacks and how to mitigate them. We demonstrate systematic differences between how autocracies and democracies work as information systems, because they rely on different mixes of common and contested political knowledge. Stable autocracies will have common knowledge over who is in charge and their associated ideological or policy goals, but will generate contested knowledge over who the various political actors in society are, and how they might form coalitions and gain public support, so as to make it more difficult for coalitions to displace the regime. Stable democracies will have contested knowledge over who is in charge, but common knowledge over who the political actors are, and how they may form coalitions and gain public support. These differences are associated with notably different attack surfaces and threat models. Specifically, democracies are vulnerable to measures that “flood” public debate and disrupt shared decentralized understandings of actors and coalitions, in ways that autocracies are not. "
democracy  political-science  technology  information-science  security 
november 2018 by tsuomela
Political Bots | Project on Algorithms, Computational Propaganda, and Digital Politics
"Political bots are manipulating public opinion over major social networking applications. This project enables a new team of social and information scientists to investigate the impact of automated scripts, commonly called bots, on social media. We study both the bot scripts and the people making such bots, and then work with computer scientists to improve the way we catch and stop such bots. Experience suggests that political bots are most likely to appear during an international crisis, and are usually designed to promote the interests of a government in trouble. Political actors have used bots to manipulate conversations, demobilize opposition, and generate false support on popular sites like Twitter and Facebook from the U.S. as well as Sina Weibo from China. The first stage of this research is international fieldwork with the political consultants and computer experts who are commissioned to make bots. Second, the we are building an original database of political incidents involving bots. Finally, the we are using this knowledge to make better tools for detecting political bots when they appear. We are doing “real-time” social and information science, and actively disseminating their findings to journalists, industry, and foreign policy experts. By developing an a network of experts in political bot detection and an original data set, the researchers will not only have a better understanding of how bots are manipulating social networks but also advance the conversation in the social sciences, computer sciences, and industry about the size of the problem and the possible solutions."
political-science  information-science  bots  politics  propaganda  algorithms 
october 2016 by tsuomela
Proceedings from the Document Academy | University Press Managed | University of Akron
"The Proceedings from the Document Academy publishes 1-2 issues a year as a record of the activities of the Document Academy, including Board-reviewed conference proceedings and peer-reviewed special issues."
documents  proceedings  conference  information-science 
july 2016 by tsuomela
Digital Curation Innovation Center | DCIC
"MISSION:  Be a leader in the digital curation research and education fields, and foster interdisciplinary partnerships using Big Records and archival analytics through public / industry /government partnerships. GOALS:  Sponsor interdisciplinary projects that explore the integration of archival research data, user-contributed data, and technology to generate new forms of analysis and historical research engagement."
academic-center  research  school(UMaryland)  information-science 
june 2016 by tsuomela
PLOS ONE: Sizing the Problem of Improving Discovery and Access to NIH-Funded Data: A Preliminary Study
"This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It focuses on those datasets that are “invisible” or not deposited in a known repository."
data-curation  discovery  access  health  health-care  information-science 
august 2015 by tsuomela
The Twitter Archive at the Library of Congress: Challenges for information practice and information policy | Zimmer | First Monday
"In April 2010, the U.S. Library of Congress and the popular micro-blogging company Twitter announced that every public tweet, since Twitter’s inception in March 2006, will be archived digitally at the Library and made available to researchers. The Library of Congress’ planned digital archive of all public tweets holds great promise for the research community, yet, over five years since its announcement, the archive remains unavailable. This paper explores the challenges faced by the Library that have prevented the timely realization of this valuable archive, divided into two categories: challenges involving practice, such as how to organize the tweets, how to provide useful means of retrieval, how to physically store them; and challenges involving policy, such as the creation of access controls to the archive, whether any information should be censored or restricted, and the broader ethical considerations of the very existence of such an archive, especially privacy and user control."
twitter  archive  LibraryOfCongress  social-media  ethics  information-science 
july 2015 by tsuomela
"Graduate Archival Education in the United States" by Richard J. Cox
"From one vantage, those who started their careers decades ago, graduate archival education has made tremendous leaps forward; from another perspective, those in the early years of their careers, education in this field may look spotty, disjointed, and confusing. As I near the end of my career (although old archivists don’t fade away, they get preserved), I have increasingly felt like an archival source in ongoing professional dialogue. In this essay, I briefly consider the evolution of graduate education since the 1970s, the emergence of a new archival professorial corps, the maturing of our field’s professional and scholarly research, and the present characteristics of the archival academy. In this, I reflect as a transitional member of the academy, one who moved from practice to professing, and speculate about what the new generation of archival faculty – younger, less experienced, better educated, and research-driven, face in the next four decades. Examining current trends leads me to speculate about what graduate archival education will look like in 2050, and what I have to say is not what I am wishing for but what will likely occur. By 2050 I will be part of archival memory. What passes for archival education will be digital stewardship, delivered mostly via distance education with on-campus programs fewer in number and those that exist focused on doctoral studies and research, and masters programs mostly technical in nature and spread more broadly across the academy with a much more diverse group of students in terms of academic backgrounds and demographic characteristics."
archives  education  pedagogy  history  2h20c  memoir  libraries  information-science 
may 2015 by tsuomela
Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies
"The mission of the Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies is to serve as a peer-reviewed platform for critical discourse in and around library and information studies from across the disciplines. This includes but is not limited to research on the political economy of information, information institutions such as libraries, archives, and museums, reflections on professional contexts and practices, questioning current paradigms and academic trends, questioning the terms of information science, exploring methodological issues in the context of the field, and otherwise enriching and broadening the scope of library and information studies by applying diverse critical and trans-disciplinary perspectives."
lis  libraries  information-science  critical-theory  criticism  journal 
march 2015 by tsuomela
ISO 14721:2012 - Space data and information transfer systems -- Open archival information system (OAIS) -- Reference model
"ISO 14721:2012 defines the reference model for an open archival information system (OAIS). An OAIS is an archive, consisting of an organization, which may be part of a larger organization, of people and systems that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a designated community. It meets a set of such responsibilities as defined in this International Standard, and this allows an OAIS archive to be distinguished from other uses of the term "archive". The term "open" in OAIS is used to imply that ISO 14721:2012, as well as future related International Standards, are developed in open forums, and it does not imply that access to the archive is unrestricted."
standards  archives  reference  international  iso  information-science 
february 2015 by tsuomela
DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly: The Digital Future is Now: A Call to Action for the Humanities
"The digital humanities are at a critical moment in the transition from a specialty area to a full-fledged community with a common set of methods, sources of evidence, and infrastructure — all of which are necessary for achieving academic recognition. As budgets are slashed and marginal programs are eliminated in the current economic crisis, only the most articulate and productive will survive. Digital collections are proliferating, but most remain difficult to use, and digital scholarship remains a backwater in most humanities departments with respect to hiring, promotion, and teaching practices. Only the scholars themselves are in a position to move the field forward. Experiences of the sciences in their initiatives for cyberinfrastructure and eScience offer valuable lessons. Information- and data-intensive, distributed, collaborative, and multi-disciplinary research is now the norm in the sciences, while remaining experimental in the humanities. Discussed here are six factors for comparison, selected for their implications for the future of digital scholarship in the humanities: publication practices, data, research methods, collaboration, incentives, and learning. Drawing upon lessons gleaned from these comparisons, humanities scholars are "called to action" with five questions to address as a community: What are data? What are the infrastructure requirements? Where are the social studies of digital humanities? What is the humanities laboratory of the 21st century? What is the value proposition for digital humanities in an era of declining budgets?"
article  digital-humanities  information-science  science  infrastructure 
november 2014 by tsuomela
Trevor Muñoz
"I am Assistant Dean for Digital Humanities Research at the University of Maryland Libraries and an Associate Director of the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH). I work on developing digital research projects and services at the intersection of digital humanities centers and libraries. I am also responsible for curating the active research data of MITH and for helping the University of Maryland Libraries plan and create a broad complement of data curation and e-Research services. My background is in Library and Information Science and Digital Humanities. I specialized in data curation for the humanities as a master's student at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. I completed a master's degree in Digital Humanities at the Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London, in 2009. While at King's I focused mainly on electronic publishing and digital literary studies though I have since worked on a number of digital history projects as well. I graduated from Harvard University with a bachelor's degree in English in 2005."
people  digital-humanities  academia  libraries  information-science 
july 2014 by tsuomela
The Knowledge Pyramid: A Critique of the DIKW Hierarchy - The University of Arizona Campus Repository
"The paper evaluates the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom (DIKW) Hierarchy. This hierarchy is part of the canon of information science and management. The paper considers whether the hierarchy, also known as the ‘Knowledge Hierarchy’, is a useful and intellectually desirable construct to introduce, whether the views expressed about DIKW are true and have evidence in favour of them, and whether there are good reasons offered or sound assumptions made about DIKW. Arguments are offered that the hierarchy is unsound and methodologically undesirable. The paper identifies a central logical error that DIKW makes. The paper identifies the dated and unsatisfactory philosophical positions of operationalism and inductivism as the philosophical backdrop to the hierarchy. The paper concludes with a sketch of some positive theories, of value to information science, on the nature of the components of the hierarchy: that data is anything recordable in a semantically and pragmatically sound way, that information is what is known in other literature as ‘weak knowledge’, that knowledge also is ‘weak knowledge’ and that wisdom is the possession and use."
data  information  knowledge  wisdom  hierarchy  theory  information-science 
september 2013 by tsuomela
The Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Hierarchy and its Antithesis - The University of Arizona Campus Repository
"The now taken-for-granted notion that data lead to information, which leads to knowledge, which in turn leads to wisdom was first specified in detail by R. L. Ackoff in 1988. The Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy is based on filtration, reduction, and transformation. Besides being causal and hierarchical, the scheme is pyramidal, in that data are plentiful while wisdom is almost nonexistent. Ackoffâ s formula linking these terms together this way permits us to ask what the opposite of knowledge is and whether analogous principles of hierarchy, process, and pyramiding apply to it. The inversion of the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy produces a series of opposing terms (including misinformation, error, ignorance, and stupidity) but not exactly a chain or a pyramid. Examining the connections between these phenomena contributes to our understanding of the contours and limits of knowledge."
data  information  knowledge  wisdom  hierarchy  theory  information-science 
september 2013 by tsuomela
Project MUSE - Configurations - Our Posthuman Past: Victorian Realism, Cybernetics, and the Problem of Information
"This essay argues that Victorian realism pre-imagines the conditions of early artificial intelligence by reading Elizabeth Gaskell’s Cranford (1853) alongside key cybernetic texts. In doing so, it claims that Victorian realism influences twentieth-century definitions of what it means to be human—definitions that have sparked contemporary debate about information and embodiment. By examining realism’s representation practices, information practices can be better understood, not just in the twenty-first century, but as part of an ongoing debate."
sts  history  literature  realism  information  information-science  rhetoric  metaphor 
august 2013 by tsuomela
"Christopher M. Kelty is an associate professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has a joint appointment in the Center for Society and Genetics, the department of Information Studies and the Department of Anthropology. His research focuses on the cultural significance of information technology, especially in science and engineering. He is the author most recently of Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software (Duke University Press, 2008), as well as numerous articles on open source and free software, including its impact on education, nanotechnology, the life sciences, and issues of peer review and research process in the sciences and in the humanities. "
people  academia  information-science  p2p  open-science  citizen-science 
april 2013 by tsuomela
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice
"EBLIP is an open access, peer reviewed journal that is published quarterly, hosted by the University of Alberta Learning Services, and supported by an international team of editorial advisors. The purpose of the journal is to provide a forum for librarians and other information professionals to discover research that may contribute to decision making in professional practice. EBLIP publishes original research and commentary on the topic of evidence based library and information practice, as well as reviews of previously published research (evidence summaries) on a wide number of topics."
journal  open-access  library  information-science  lis 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Empowering Long Tail Research
"The challenge of “big data” is felt by everyone, from international teams to “teams of one.” Small laboratories need services and tools to help them make full use—and be good stewards—of the valuable research data they collect and create."
research  academia  data-curation  lab  scale  information-science  technology 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Joho the Blog » [2b2k] My world leader can beat up your world leader
"On the other hand, information is now passed around if it is made interesting, sometimes in jokey, demeaning ways, like an article that steers us toward beefcake (although the president of Ireland does make it up quite high in the Reddit thread). The information that gets propagated through this system is thus spotty and incomplete. It only becomes an occasion for serendipity if it is interesting, not simply because it’s worthwhile. But even jokey, demeaning posts can and should have links for those whose interest is piqued."
information-science  dissemination  news  journalism  information  facts  gossip  novelty 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Science Magazine: Sign In
By Brossard and Scheufele.  "A world in which one in seven people actively use Facebook, and more than 340 million tweets are being posted everyday is not the future of science communication any more. It is today's reality. Scientists and social scientists must explore outcomes of online interactions about science in much greater detail. This work will have to be based on rigorous empirical social science rather than guesswork and anecdotal evidence about how to communicate complex and sometimes controversial science in these new information environments. Without applied research on how to best communicate science online, we risk creating a future where the dynamics of online communication systems have a stronger impact on public views about science than the specific research that we as scientists are trying to communicate."
science  communication  online  social-media  media-studies  information-science 
january 2013 by tsuomela
My Life as a Night Elf Priest | Savage Minds
"Well, it’s not too complicated: My Life As A Night Elf Priest by Bonnie Nardi is the best ethnography of World of Warcraft out there. And that’s not likely to change soon." Annotated link
book  review  ethnography  anthropology  virtual  world  games  online  information-science 
july 2012 by tsuomela
Welcome to CLIR — Council on Library and Information Resources
CLIR is an independent, nonprofit organization that forges strategies to enhance research, teaching, and learning environments in collaboration with libraries, cultural institutions, and communities of higher learning.
libraries  information  information-science  associations  research  resource  library  education 
july 2012 by tsuomela
The Secret Life of Data in the Year 2020 | World Future Society
Using these science-fiction visions, we can begin to develop a way to conceptualize the data. From the view of this narrative, our data—the data we created—becomes a kind of simulacrum of ourselves. Like Philip K. Dick’s androids and William Gibson’s cyborgs, data becomes a way to embody who we are, but at the same time it remains external. It allows us to examine who we are and also what we want to do with these systems. As we begin to architect these systems, often the reality is too hard to handle: It’s too complex for us to make any meaningful design decisions. We need these representations, these androids, to be our proxies.
data  sf  human  information-science  connection  understanding  philosophy  future  relationship 
july 2012 by tsuomela
The Social Cocktail, Part 1: Mixology
The fundamental question it answers is: Why analyze social data from more than one publisher?

Each social media publisher brings distinct capabilities and audiences, and encourages unique ways for users to interact and express themselves. The overlap in audience between some publishers is low, so adding publishers helps broaden topic coverage and audience perspective. Microblogs (e.g. Twitter) are fast and concise, making it easier to tease out breaking stories and emerging conversations. Blog comments indicate engagement and controversy, and therefore point back to interesting blog posts, where the in-depth analysis is found. Votes and likes provide additional signals of reader engagement–indications of the quality and the pitch of conversation.
social-media  analysis  data  online  behavior  information-science 
july 2012 by tsuomela
"Welcome to SIG ED, the Special Interest Group for Education in Information in Information Science at the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS
professional-association  education  information-science 
may 2012 by tsuomela
JELIS – Journal of Education in Library and Information Science » Blog Archive » Theories-in-Use and Reflection-in-Action: Core Principles for LIS Education by Phillip M. Edwards
"This article examines the extent to which two concepts from research on organizational learning—theories-in-use and reflection-in-action—could align with typical learning outcomes associated with LIS education. Two illustrative case studies are considered: one from an undergraduate-level course on search strategies and one from a graduate-level course in collection development. Based on the kinds of classroom experiences that are reported to be most valuable to students, these concepts appear to be useful for designing and assessing the effectiveness of activities, exercises, and assignments. Student feedback from these two cases, while not universally positive, is suggestive of the utility of these concepts as guiding principles for instructional design and evaluation in the context of LIS education."
education  teaching  theory  practice  reflection  lis  library  information-science 
may 2012 by tsuomela
Research Data Curation Bibliography
The Research Data Curation Bibliography includes selected English-language articles and technical reports that are useful in understanding the curation of digital research data in academic and other research institutions. For broader coverage of the digital curation literature, see the author's Digital Curation and Preservation Bibliography 2010.
data  curation  research  bibliography  data-curation  information-science 
april 2012 by tsuomela
The Portal Problem, Part 2: The Plight of the Library Collection « The Scholarly Kitchen
"Today, I’d like to suggest that the traditional research library faces a similar challenge. The library collection is simply a bigger version of the encyclopedia: a seemingly exhaustive but actually (in the great majority of cases) very limited information portal that invites increasingly-skeptical customers to “start your research here.”"
libraries  future  access  research  purpose  information-science 
april 2012 by tsuomela
The Architecture of Information: Architecture, Interaction Design and the Patterning of Digital Information (Paperback) - Routledge
"This book looks at relationships between the organization of physical objects in space and the organization of ideas. Historical, philosophical, psychological and architectural knowledge are united to develop an understanding of the relationship between information and its representation.

Despite its potential to break the mould, digital information has relied on metaphors from a pre-digital era. In particular, architectural ideas have pervaded discussions of digital information, from the urbanization of cyberspace in science fiction, through to the adoption of spatial visualizations in the design of graphical user interfaces. This book tackles:

the historical importance of physical places to the organization and expression of knowledge
the limitations of using the physical organization of objects as the basis for systems of categorization and taxonomy
the emergence of digital technologies and the twentieth century new conceptual understandings of knowledge and its organization
the concept of disconnecting storage of information objects from their presentation and retrieval
ideas surrounding ‘semantic space’
the realities of the types of user interface which now dominate modern computing."
book  publisher  information-science  information  architecture  space 
april 2012 by tsuomela
PebbleRoad: Organizing digital information for others
"When we interact with web and intranet teams, we find many struggling to move beyond conceptual-level discussions on information organization. Hours on end are spent on discussing the meaning of "metadata", "controlled vocabulary" and "taxonomy" without any strategic understanding of how everything fits together. Being so bogged down at this level they fail to look beyond to the main reason for their pursuit—organizing information for others (the end users) so that they can find the information easily."
information-science  organization  other  people  digital 
april 2012 by tsuomela
"ICSTI, the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, offers a unique forum for interaction between organizations that create, disseminate and use scientific and technical information. ICSTI’s mission cuts across scientific and technical disciplines, as well as international borders, to give member organizations the benefit of a truly global community."
information  standards  information-science  e-science  library  metadata 
february 2012 by tsuomela
Home - National Information Standards Organization
"NISO is where content publishers, libraries, and software developers turn for information industry standards that allow them to work together. Through NISO, all of these communities are able to collaborate on mutually accepted standards — solutions that enhance their operations today and form a foundation for the future."
information  standards  national  information-science  e-science  library  metadata 
february 2012 by tsuomela
Web Interface Design
"Interface design encompasses three distinct, but related constructs--usability, visualization, and functionality (Vertelney, Arent,
interface  design  web-design  computers  information-science  information-architecture  usability  visualization  functional  access 
february 2012 by tsuomela
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