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Global Risks 2013 - Reports - World Economic Forum
"The global risk of massive digital misinformation sits at the centre of a constellation of technological and geopolitical risks ranging from terrorism to cyber attacks and the failure of global governance. This risk case examines how hyperconnectivity could enable “digital wildfires” to wreak havoc in the real world. It considers the challenge presented by the misuse of an open and easily accessible system and the greater danger of misguided attempts to prevent such outcomes."
internet  online  risk  knowledge  bias  psychology  intelligence  misinformation  agnotology 
april 2016 by tsuomela
Overseas Surveillance in an Interconnected World | Brennan Center for Justice
"Recent debates about privacy and technology have focused on the actions of government agencies inside the U.S. — for example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's efforts to break encryption on iPhones or the National Security Agency's bulk collection of Americans' phone records. But in a new report, we found that the NSA's overseas surveillance activities through Executive Order 12333, most of which remain shrouded in secrecy, may have a far great impact on Americans' privacy."
privacy  surveillance  nsa  foreign-policy  intelligence 
march 2016 by tsuomela
The associations of birth order with personality and intelligence in a representative sample of U.S. high school students
"We tested birth order associations with personality traits and intelligence using Project Talent, a representative sample (N = 377,000) of U.S. high school students. Using a between-family design and several background factors (i.e., age, sex, sibship size, parental socio-economic status, and family structure), we were able to control for potential confounds, and estimate the links between birth order and outcomes across several different social categories. In addition to differences between firstborns and laterborns across the entire sample, we also tested birth rank trends in a sub-sample of targets from sibships of three, raised by two parents. Overall, the average absolute association between birth order and personality traits was .02, whereas the one between birth order and intelligence was .04."
birth-order  personality  psychology  family  intelligence 
july 2015 by tsuomela
Why Twitter Should Not Algorithmically Curate the Timeline — The Message — Medium
"There is so much Twitter can do try to improve the user experience, for both the experienced and the beginner. But I hope that it does not algorithmically curate the feed, not because I love the chronology per se, but because I value people’s judgement. Yes, Twitter can make it easier to access that judgment in more varied ways but stepping between people I choose to follow and me is not the answer."
twitter  design  algorithms  filtering  filters  emergence  intelligence 
september 2014 by tsuomela
Sign In
"A meta-analysis of 63 studies showed a significant negative association between intelligence and religiosity. The association was stronger for college students and the general population than for participants younger than college age; it was also stronger for religious beliefs than religious behavior. For college students and the general population, means of weighted and unweighted correlations between intelligence and the strength of religious beliefs ranged from −.20 to −.25 (mean r = −.24). Three possible interpretations were discussed. First, intelligent people are less likely to conform and, thus, are more likely to resist religious dogma. Second, intelligent people tend to adopt an analytic (as opposed to intuitive) thinking style, which has been shown to undermine religious beliefs. Third, several functions of religiosity, including compensatory control, self-regulation, self-enhancement, and secure attachment, are also conferred by intelligence. Intelligent people may therefore have less need for religious beliefs and practices."
religion  intelligence  psychology  research  meta-analysis 
august 2013 by tsuomela
Mark Bernstein: Wikipedia: We Should Have Known
Part of a series of posts critical of Wikipedia and its ability to remain successful given sockpuppets, the crazies, and byzantine rules.
wikipedia  wiki  crowdsourcing  distributed  intelligence  failure 
june 2013 by tsuomela
Disputed results a fresh blow for social psychology : Nature News & Comment
"A paper published in PLoS ONE last week1 reports that nine different experiments failed to replicate this example of 'intelligence priming', first described in 1998 (ref. 2) by Ap Dijksterhuis, a social psychologist at Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands, and now included in textbooks."
psychology  social-psychology  replication  experiment  priming  intelligence 
april 2013 by tsuomela
BBC News - A Point of View: Chess and 18th Century artificial intelligence
"An 18th Century automaton that could beat human chess opponents seemingly marked the arrival of artificial intelligence. But what turned out to be an elaborate hoax had its own sense of genius, says Adam Gopnik."
intelligence  artificial-intelligence  18c  history  chess  automation  genius  mastery  talent 
april 2013 by tsuomela
The (Future) Automation of Labor, and Some Notes on “Mind,” “Intelligence,” and the Google Singularity - uncomputing
"The use of the term “intelligence” in the fields of AI/Cognitive Science as coterminous with “mind” has always been a red herring. The problems with AI have never been about intelligence: it is obviously the case that machines have become much more intelligent than we are, if we define “intelligence” in the most usual ways: ability to do mathematics, or to access specific pieces of information, or to process complex logical constructions. But they do not have minds–or at least not human minds, or anything much like them."
artificial-intelligence  mind  intelligence  computers  technology  future  singularity 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Academic assholes and the circle of niceness | The Thesis Whisperer
"In his best selling book ‘The No Asshole Rule’ Robert Sutton, a professor at Stanford University, has a lot to say on the topic of, well, assholes in the workplace. The book is erudite and amusing in equal measures and well worth reading especially for the final chapter where Sutton examines the advantages of being an asshole. He cites work by Teresa Amabile, who did a series of controlled experiments using fictitious book reviews. While the reviews themselves essentially made the same observations about the books, the tone in which the reviewers expressed their observations was tweaked to be either nice or nasty. What Amabile found was: … negative or unkind people were seen as less likeable but more intelligent, competent and expert than those who expressed the the same messages in gentler ways"
personality  argument  behavior  academia  intelligence  expertise  appearance 
march 2013 by tsuomela
The Anthropic Stupidity Hypothesis - Charlie's Diary
"Why is the human species only as intelligent as it is, and not more so?"
intelligence  species  speculation  social  behavior  learning 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Locus Online Perspectives » David Brin: Our Favorite Cliché — A World Filled With Idiots…, or,Why Films and Novels Routinely Depict Society and its Citizens as Fools
"It can be hard to notice things you take for granted — assumptions that are never questioned, because everyone shares them. One of these nearly ubiquitous themes is a tendency for most authors and/or film-makers to disdain the intelligence and wisdom of society as a whole, portraying a majority of their fellow citizens as sheep or fools."
fiction  perception  groups  societies  authority  trust  literature  cliche  intelligence  groupthink  bureaucracy  infrastructure 
january 2013 by tsuomela
National Intelligence Council - Global Trends
"The National Intelligence Council's (NIC) Global Trends Report engages expertise from outside government on factors of such as globalization, demography and the environment, producing a forward-looking document to aid policymakers in their long term planning on key issues of worldwide importance. Since the first report was released in 1997, the audience for each Global Trends report has expanded, generating more interest and reaching a broader audience that the one that preceded it. A new Global Trends report is published every four years following the U.S. presidential election."
futures  prediction  government  intelligence  america  empire 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Tomgram: Engelhardt, Apocalypse When? | TomDispatch
"Ever since, every few years the National Intelligence Council (NIC), the IC’s “center for long-term strategic analysis,” has been intent on producing a document it calls serially Global Trends [fill in the future year].  The latest edition, out just in time for Barack Obama’s second term, is Global Trends 2030.  Here’s one utterly predictable thing about it: it’s bigger and more elaborate than Global Trends 2025.  "
futures  prediction  government  intelligence  america  empire 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Collective Intelligence | Conversation | Edge
"It's important to realize that intelligence is not just something that happens inside individual brains. It also arises with groups of individuals. In fact, I'd define collective intelligence as groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. By that definition, of course, collective intelligence has been around for a very long time. Families, companies, countries, and armies: those are all examples of groups of people working together in ways that at least sometimes seem intelligent."
collective-intelligence  research  interview  psychology  sociology  crowdsourcing  augmentation  intelligence 
december 2012 by tsuomela
Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence
"The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the ‘social intelligence hypothesis’), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa."
intelligence  evolution  simulation  cooperation  neuralnetworks 
april 2012 by tsuomela
“Computers In The University” | Gardner Writes
" I re-read some material from Mitchell Waldrup’s epic The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the Revolution that Made Computing Personal. I’ve read this book about three times all the way through, and I dip into it habitually to relive those defining moments of the emergent digital age–including the defining moments of rank unbridled idiocy that almost strangled the revolution in its cradle, such as the British Postal Service’s refusal to let the team that developed packet-switched communications develop their innovation, in any way, for any purpose. Too disruptive, you see
computers  education  augmentation  intelligence  history  technology  20c 
april 2012 by tsuomela
Democratic Reason: The Mechanisms of Collective Intelligence in Politics by Helene Landemore :: SSRN
This paper argues that democracy can be seen as a way to channel “democratic reason,” or the collective political intelligence of the many. The paper hypothesizes that two main democratic mechanisms - the practice of inclusive deliberation (in its direct and indirect versions) and the institution of majority rule with universal suffrage - combine their epistemic properties to maximize the chances that the group pick the “better” political answer within a given context and a set of values. The paper further argues that under the conditions of a liberal society, characterized among other things by sufficient cognitive diversity, these two mechanisms give democracy an epistemic edge over versions of the rule of the few.
democracy  political-science  collective-intelligence  collective  collaboration  decision  intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
When Do Groups Perform Better than Individuals? A Company Takeover Experiment by Marco Casari, Jingjing Zhang, Christine Jackson :: SSRN
"It is still an open question when groups will perform better than individuals in intellectual tasks. We report that in a company takeover experiment, groups placed better bids than individuals and substantially reduced the winner’s curse. This improvement was mostly due to peer pressure over the minority opinion and to group learning. Learning took place from interacting and negotiating consensus with others, not simply from observing their bids. When there was disagreement within a group, what prevailed was not the best proposal but the one of the majority. Groups underperformed with respect to a “truth wins” benchmark although they outperformed individuals deciding in isolation. "
groups  collective-intelligence  decision-making  performance  intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
LEDFace Blog - Help Us Build a New Kind of Intelligence
"Ledface has a very specific goal: to enable people to tap into collective intelligence to acquire information to solve their day-to-day problems. Think of it as a new kind of social network in which people interact with each other indirectly, through knowledge, through Ledface.
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At Ledface, everyone can ask and we will match the question with the group best suited to answer. We select a group of people who match each query and we ask them to interact in real time as a team to create the answer. They share their thoughts, combine them, and review each other’s input. So you don’t get a list of replies, but a specific, custom answer co-created in real time each time you ask. No names, no ego, just knowledge."
collaboration  crowdsourcing  wisdom  crowds  intelligence  collective-intelligence  tools 
july 2011 by tsuomela
U.S. intelligence and the wisdom of crowds | Bernd Debusmann | Analysis
"t’s officially known as the Forecasting World Events Project and is sponsored by the Intelligence Advanced Research Activity (IARPA), a little-known agency run by a woman, Lisa Porter, who is occasionally described as America’s answer to the fictional Agent Q who designs cutting edge gadgets for James Bond. Much of IARPA’s work is classified, as is its budget. But the forecasting project is not classified. Invitations to participate are now on the Internet.

The idea is to raise five large competing teams of people of diverse backgrounds who will be asked to make predictions on fields that range from politics and global security to business and economics, public health, social and cultural change and science and technology. The project is expected to run for four years and stems from the recognition that expert forecasts are very often wrong."
futurism  predictions  expertise  crowdsourcing  wisdom  distributed  cognition  intelligence  spying 
april 2011 by tsuomela
It's made out of meat. - Charlie's Diary
"We have one faction that is attempting to write software that can generate messages that can pass a Turing test, and another faction that is attempting to write software that can administer an ad-hoc Turing test. Each faction has a strong incentive to beat the other. This is the classic pattern of an evolutionary predator/prey arms race: and so I deduce that if symbol-handling, linguistic artificial intelligence is possible at all, we are on course for a very odd destination indeed — the Spamularity, in which those curious lumps of communicating meat give rise to a meta-sphere of discourse dominated by parasitic viral payloads pretending to be meat"
artificial-intelligence  spam  internet  intelligence  culture 
january 2011 by tsuomela
WikiLeaks and Assange pretend there are no consequences - chicagotribune.com
These smaller dots aren't famous. They're foreign nationals. They could be clerks and janitors and such. They have names and friends and families. And soon, one dot is tied to another dot is tied to another dot.

Once they're connected, a door is kicked in by the security forces. The dot is put into the back seat of the car, then driven to a place where sunshine does not illuminate anything. And nobody notifies Assange about what became of the dot or its family.

By then, they're not dots anymore. They're not abstractions. They're real people. Or they were. And that's something that Assange — who reasons like a child — pretends not to understand.
wikileaks  criticism  secrecy  security  literacy  classification  diplomacy  authority  intelligence  spying 
december 2010 by tsuomela
How wise are crowds?
Fortunately, in a paper to be published in the Review of Economic Studies, researchers from MIT’s Departments of Economics and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science have demonstrated that, as networks of people grow larger, they’ll usually tend to converge on an accurate understanding of information distributed among them, even if individual members of the network can observe only their nearby neighbors. A few opinionated people with large audiences can slow that convergence, but in the long run, they’re unlikely to stop it.
collective-intelligence  crowdsourcing  modeling  game-theory  simulation  intelligence  wisdom  networks  collective 
november 2010 by tsuomela
Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups -- Woolley et al., 10.1126/science.1193147 -- Science
Psychologists have repeatedly shown that a single statistical factor—often called "general intelligence"—emerges from the correlations among people's performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. But no one has systematically examined whether a similar kind of "collective intelligence" exists for groups of people. In two studies with 699 individuals, working in groups of two to five, we find converging evidence of a general collective intelligence factor that explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks. This "c factor" is not strongly correlated with the average or maximum individual intelligence of group members but is correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.
group  intelligence  distributed  cognition  collaboration  research  psychology  science  social  collective-intelligence 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Oct. 1: CMU, MIT and Union Study Shows Collective Intelligence of Groups Exceeds Cognitive Abilities of Individual Group Members - Carnegie Mellon University
When it comes to intelligence, the whole can indeed be greater than the sum of its parts. A new study co-authored by Carnegie Mellon University, MIT and Union College researchers documents the existence of collective intelligence among groups of people who cooperate well, showing that such intelligence extends beyond the cognitive abilities of the groups' individual members, and that the tendency to cooperate effectively is linked to the number of women in a group.
group  intelligence  distributed  cognition  collaboration  research 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Relevant History: Word spacing, silent reading, and cyborgs
Word spacing is something that we never think about, much less think about having been invented or having a history.The Romans almost never used it: Latin texts and inscriptions on buildings often ran words together But [Paul] Saenger makes a compelling case that its adoption and diffusion in late medival Europe had tremendous ramifications in monastic culture, book history, and eventually intellectual and political history.
history  sts  communication  typesetting  typography  reading  books  cybernetics  cyborgs  distributed  intelligence 
september 2010 by tsuomela
BBC News - Alien hunters 'should look for artificial intelligence'
Dr Shostak says that artificially intelligent alien life would be likely to migrate to places where both matter and energy - the only things he says would be of interest to the machines - would be in plentiful supply. That means the Seti hunt may need to focus its attentions near hot, young stars or even near the centres of galaxies.
astrobiology  astronomy  seti  extraterrestrial  intelligence  alien  artificial-intelligence 
august 2010 by tsuomela
EconPapers: Teams Make You Smarter: Learning and Knowledge Transfer in Auctions and Markets by Teams and Individuals
Abstract: We study the impact of team decision making on market behavior and its consequences for subsequent individual performance in the Wason selection task, the single-most studied reasoning task. We reformulated the task in terms of “assets” in a market context. Teams of traders learn the task’s solution faster than individuals and achieve this with weaker, less specific, performance feedback. Some teams even perform better than the best individuals. The experience of team decision-making in the market also creates positive knowledge spillovers for post–market individual performance in solving new Wason tasks, implying that team experiences enhance individual problem-solving skills.
economics  teamwork  intelligence  groups  social-cognition  cognition 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Technology Review: Blogs: arXiv blog: The Fermi Paradox, Phase Changes and Intergalactic Colonisation
Bezsudnov and Snarskii even derive an inequality that a universe must satisfy to become civilised. This, they say, is analogous to the famous Drake equation which attempts to quantify the number of other contactable civilisations in the universe right now.
astrobiology  astronomy  extraterrestrial  intelligence  fermi-paradox  simulation  celluar-automata  model 
july 2010 by tsuomela
FT.com / Global insight - Iraq intelligence fiasco could happen again
It is now harder than ever to avoid the conclusion that the Bush and Blair governments cherry-picked morsels of intelligence
iraq  war  intelligence  government  lying  deceit  about(GeorgeBush) 
july 2010 by tsuomela
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