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tsuomela : methodology   117

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"From a journalist and former lab researcher, a penetrating investigation of the explosion in cases of scientific fraud and the factors behind it. In the 1970s, a scientific scandal about painted mice hit the headlines. A cancer researcher was found to have deliberately falsified his experiments by coloring transplanted mouse skin with ink. This widely publicized case of scientific misconduct marked the beginning of an epidemic of fraud that plagues the scientific community today. From manipulated results and made-up data to retouched illustrations and plagiarism, cases of scientific fraud have skyrocketed in the past two decades, especially in the biomedical sciences. Fraud in the Lab examines cases of scientific misconduct around the world and asks why this behavior is so pervasive. Nicolas Chevassus-au-Louis points to large-scale trends that have led to an environment of heightened competition, extreme self-interest, and emphasis on short-term payoffs. Because of the move toward highly specialized research, fewer experts are qualified to verify experimental findings. And the pace of journal publishing has exacerbated the scientific rewards system—publish or perish holds sway more than ever. Even when instances of misconduct are discovered, researchers often face few consequences, and falsified data may continue to circulate after an article has been retracted. Sharp and damning, this exposé details the circumstances that have allowed scientific standards to decline. Fraud in the Lab reveals the intense social pressures that lead to fraud, documents the lasting impact it has had on the scientific community, and highlights recent initiatives and proposals to reduce the extent of misconduct in the futu"
science  methodology  fraud  competition 
august 2019 by tsuomela
Plausibility Project
"Plausibility is a contested term in the scenarios and foresight literature. It is often used in juxtaposition to probability and used to distinguish more qualitatively led work. However, what plausibility actually (and symbolically) means, how it matters for practice, and why it is important for the contemporary coping with uncertainty is unclear. This multi-year obsession seeks to unravel these mysteries. In 2009, I co-organized (with Arnim Wiek, in cooperation with the Institute for Science, Society and Innovation at the University of Oxford), a 2-day International Workshop on Plausibility to: * identify the ‘state of the art’ (concepts, empirical studies) * account for research and knowledge gaps * develop a coordinated research agenda. In preparation for the workshop, the participating internationally recognized scholars and practitioners developed initial thoughts on plausibility in their Portraits of Plausibility. Additionally, we created a Bibliography which presents a cursory collection of the scholarly literature relevant to plausibility. "
futures  plausibility  philosophy  methodology 
march 2018 by tsuomela
Digital History & Argument White Paper – Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media
"This white paper is the product of the Arguing with Digital History Workshop organized by Stephen Robertson and Lincoln Mullen of George Mason University, with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The two-day workshop, which involved twenty-four invited participants at different stages in their careers, working in a variety of fields with a range of digital methods, was conceived with a focus on one particular form of digital history, arguments directed at scholarly audiences and disciplinary conversations. Despite recurrent calls for digital history in this form from digital and analog historians, few examples exist. The original aim of the workshop was to promote digital history that directly engaged with historiographical arguments by producing a white paper that addressed the conceptual and structural issues involved in such scholarship. Input from the participants expanded the scope of the white paper to also elaborate the arguments made by other forms of digital history and address the obstacles to professional recognition of those interpretations. The result was a document that aims to help bridge the argumentative practices of digital history and the broader historical profession. On the one hand, it aims to demonstrate to the wider historical discipline how digital history is already making arguments in different forms than analog scholarship. On the other hand, it aims to help digital historians weave the scholarship they produce into historiographical conversations in the discipline."
digital-humanities  digital  history  methodology 
november 2017 by tsuomela
MMIRA - Home
"We cordially invite you to join the Mixed Methods International Research Association (MMIRA), an exciting, new professional association created to promote the development of an international and interdisciplinary mixed methods research community. Among the many benefits of membership will be:"
research  professional-association  methodology 
december 2015 by tsuomela
Strategies for Social Inquiry | Cambridge University Press
"This new book series presents texts on a wide range of issues bearing upon the practice ofsocial inquiry. Strategies are construed broadly to embrace the full spectrum of approachesto analysis, as well as relevant issues in philosophy of social science."
publisher  books  series  social-science  methods  methodology 
september 2015 by tsuomela
Tufekci
"Large-scale databases of human activity in social media have captured scientific and policy attention, producing a flood of research and discussion. This paper considers methodological and conceptual challenges for this emergent field, with special attention to the validity and representativeness of social media big data analyses. Persistent issues include the over-emphasis of a single platform, Twitter, sampling biases arising from selection by hashtags, and vague and unrepresentative sampling frames. The socio-cultural complexity of user behavior aimed at algorithmic invisibility (such as subtweeting, mock-retweeting, use of “screen captures” for text, etc.) further complicate interpretation of big data social media. Other challenges include accounting for field effects, i.e. broadly consequential events that do not diffuse only through the network under study but affect the whole society. The application of network methods from other fields to the study of human social activity may not always be appropriate. The paper concludes with a call to action on practical steps to improve our analytic capacity in this promising, rapidly-growing field."
conference  social-media  methods  methodology 
december 2014 by tsuomela
PLOS Medicine: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False
"There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research."
research  methodology  methods  statistics  validation  truth  significance 
january 2014 by tsuomela
Book Review: Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and Contexts | LSE Review of Books
"Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and Contexts. Martyn Hammersley and Anna Traianou. Sage. May 2012."
book  review  research  methods  methodology  ethics  qualitative 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Authors of political science book argue for changes in methodology | Inside Higher Ed
"In their recently published book A Model Discipline: Political Science and the Logic of Representations (Oxford University Press), Clarke and Primo delve into the ramifications of this "physics envy" for political science. In their quest to emulate the hard sciences, Clarke and Primo write, political scientists have placed far too much emphasis on model testing, resulting in the widespread view "that theoretical models must be tested to be of value and that the ultimate goal of empirical analysis is theory testing."
A Model Discipline argues that the logic behind this stance is hopelessly flawed, while its impacts have been detrimental to political science in a variety of ways."
book  interview  methods  methodology  hypothetical  deduction  political-science  social-science  physics  hard-v-soft  science 
april 2012 by tsuomela
The Social Sciences’ ‘Physics Envy’ - NYTimes.com
"This might seem like a worthy aspiration. Many social scientists contend that science has a method, and if you want to be scientific, you should adopt it. The method requires you to devise a theoretical model, deduce a testable hypothesis from the model and then test the hypothesis against the world. If the hypothesis is confirmed, the theoretical model holds
social-science  methodology  philosophy  scientism  epistemology 
april 2012 by tsuomela
Statistical Significance Is an Arbitrary Convention : Uncertain Principles
"As a result, arguments about whether a given result is just above or just below an arbitrary and conventional threshold seems foolish. Doing the calculations wrong is still a major mistake, but whether they're done correctly or not, we should stop pretending that "statistically significant" is some kind of magic guarantee of quality."
science  statistics  significance  meaning  research  results  positivism  methodology 
september 2011 by tsuomela
methods@manchester: research methods in the social sciences
"• Highlighting the depth and breadth of methodological expertise in the social sciences at the University of Manchester.

• Promoting and facilitating methodological excellence, innovation and inter-disciplinarity."
social-science  methods  methodology  research  reference 
april 2011 by tsuomela
UnderstandingSociety: Methodological localism
"I offer a social ontology that I refer to as methodological localism (ML). This theory of social entities affirms that there are large social structures and facts that influence social outcomes. But it insists that these structures are only possible insofar as they are embodied in the actions and states of socially constructed individuals. The “molecule” of all social life is the socially constructed and socially situated individual, who lives, acts, and develops within a set of local social relationships, institutions, norms, and rules."
sociology  explanation  social  ontology  philosophy  theory  localism  methodology 
march 2011 by tsuomela
A Tale of Two Cultures: Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative Research — Political Analysis
"The quantitative and qualitative research traditions can be thought of as distinct cultures marked by different values, beliefs, and norms. In this essay, we adopt this metaphor toward the end of contrasting these research traditions across 10 areas: (1) approaches to explanation, (2) conceptions of causation, (3) multivariate explanations, (4) equifinality, (5) scope and causal generalization, (6) case selection, (7) weighting observations, (8) substantively important cases, (9) lack of fit, and (10) concepts and measurement. We suggest that an appreciation of the alternative assumptions and goals of the traditions can help scholars avoid misunderstandings and contribute to more productive “cross-cultural” communication in political science. "
research  paradigm  quantitative  qualitative  methodology  political-science  social-science 
december 2010 by tsuomela
UnderstandingSociety: Granularity
"Twentieth century thinking in the social sciences has generally continued this trend. What makes social science "scientific" is rigorous attention to empirical characteristics of the social world. There is generally even less patience with large philosophical theories of society and history. A good theory isn't of much interest unless it can be closely tied to particular bodies of empirical observation. It is hard to think of a 20th-century sociologist who took up the Comtean project of comparing the course of civilizations. And there is a growing consensus that the focus of social research needs somehow to capture the behavior of situated actors within socially specific arrangements -- in other words, a refinement of focus towards the more particular arrangements."
social-science  methodology  scale  granularity  objects  sts  sociology  history  academic 
december 2010 by tsuomela
New York Study on Who May End Up Homeless Called Cruel - NYTimes.com
It has long been the standard practice in medical testing: Give drug treatment to one group while another, the control group, goes without.

Now, New York City is applying the same methodology to assess one of its programs to prevent homelessness.
economics  welfare  poverty  experiments  city(NewYork)  methodology  social-science 
december 2010 by tsuomela
Harvard Case Against Marc Hauser Is Hard to Define - NYTimes.com
"Disagreements over the appropriate method are quite common in the animal cognition field, as is evident in the fact that some of the most spectacular experiments cannot be repeated. Disagreements over method also seem to have been involved in at least some of the five cases involving differences between Dr. Hauser and his students."
science  ethics  fraud  repetition  positivism  philosophy  methodology  experiments  expertise  animal-behavior  cognition  biology 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Social Research Methods
Includes a knowledge base, information on simulations, selecting statistics, concept mapping.
research  methods  methodology  reference  social-science  statistics  sociology 
october 2010 by tsuomela
History of the Central Limit Theorem
This study discusses the history of the central limit theorem and related probabilistic limit theorems from about 1810 through 1950. In this context the book also describes the historical development of analytical probability theory and its tools, such as characteristic functions or moments. The central limit theorem was originally deduced by Laplace as a statement about approximations for the distributions of sums of independent random variables within the framework of classical probability, which focused upon specific problems and applications. Making this theorem an autonomous mathematical object was very important for the development of modern probability theory.
book  publisher  history  mathematics  statistics  methodology  19c  probability 
june 2010 by tsuomela
A Fine Theorem
A summary of recent economics research written by a PhD student in the MEDS program at Northwestern Kellogg. I tend to read within my fields of interest – innovation, urban economics, micro theory, and philosophy/methodology – though posts are not exclusive to those areas. The vast majority of posts here are on recent research – working papers published within the last few months, or recent journal articles – although particularly interesting, undervalued work from the past will be featured.
weblog-individual  economics  theory  academic  innovation  urban  microeconomics  methodology 
may 2010 by tsuomela
Animal studies paint misleading picture : Nature News
Published animal trials overestimate by about 30% the likelihood that a treatment works because negative results often go unpublished, a study suggests.
science  news  biology  methodology  publishing  incentives 
march 2010 by tsuomela
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