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tsuomela : revolution   60

History of science: The crucible of change : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
The invention of science: a new history of the scientific revolution by David Wooten.
book  review  science  revolution  17c  history  sts 
september 2015 by tsuomela
Artisan/Practitioners and the Rise of the New Sciences, 1400-1600 | OSU Press
"This book provides the historical background for a central issue in the history of science: the influence of artisans, craftsmen, and other practitioners on the emergent empirical methodologies that characterized the “new sciences” of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Pamela Long offers a coherent account and critical revision of the “Zilsel thesis,” an influential etiological narrative that claims these craftsmen were instrumental in bringing about the “Scientific Revolution.” Artisan/Practitioners reassesses the issue of artisanal influence from three different perspectives: the perceived relationships between art and nature; the Vitruvian architectural tradition with its appreciation of both theory and practice; and the development of “trading zones”—arenas in which artisans and learned men communicated in substantive ways. These complex social and intellectual developments, the book argues, underlay the development of the empirical sciences. This volume provides new discussion and synthesis of a theory that encompasses broad developments in European history and study of the natural world. It will be a valuable resource for college-level teaching, and for scholars and others interested in the history of science, late medieval and early modern European history, and the Scientific Revolution"
history  science  revolution  scientific-method  engineering  technology  book  publisher 
september 2014 by tsuomela
Openness, Secrecy, Authorship
"In today's world of intellectual property disputes, industrial espionage, and book signings by famous authors, one easily loses sight of the historical nature of the attribution and ownership of texts. In Openness, Secrecy, Authorship: Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance, Pamela Long combines intellectual history with the history of science and technology to explore the culture of authorship. Using classical Greek as well as medieval and Renaissance European examples, Long traces the definitions, limitations, and traditions of intellectual and scientific creation and attribution. She examines these attitudes as they pertain to the technical and the practical. Although Long's study follows a chronological development, this is not merely a general work. Long is able to examine events and sources within their historical context and locale. By looking at Aristotelian ideas of Praxis, Techne, and Episteme. She explains the tension between craft and ideas, authors and producers. She discusses, with solid research and clear prose, the rise, wane, and resurgence of priority in the crediting and lionizing of authors. Long illuminates the creation and re-creation of ideas like "trade secrets," "plagiarism," "mechanical arts," and "scribal culture." Her historical study complicates prevailing assumptions while inviting a closer look at issues that define so much of our society and thought to this day. She argues that "a useful working definition of authorship permits a gradation of meaning between the poles of authority and originality," and guides us through the term's nuances with clarity rarely matched in a historical study."
history  science  revolution  scientific-method  engineering  technology  book  publisher 
september 2014 by tsuomela
Notes on Identity, Institutions, and Uprisings | Whimsley
"Fin­ish­ing up what I said I’d fin­ish a cou­ple of months ago, this is a shorter ver­sion of a paper on “Iden­tity, Insti­tu­tions, and Upris­ings” with less math­e­mat­ics, no ref­er­ences (see the link above) and more opin­ion­at­ing."
online  behavior  revolution  social-movement  identity  model 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Revolt of the Rich | The American Conservative
"Our plutocracy now lives like the British in colonial India: in the place and ruling it, but not of it. If one can afford private security, public safety is of no concern
rich  revolution  plutocracy  power  politics  conservative  markets-uber-alles  criticism 
august 2012 by tsuomela
Hall’s Law: The Nineteenth Century Prequel to Moore’s Law
"Interchangeability of parts breaks the coupling between scaling and manufacturing capacity by substituting supply-chain limits for manufacturing limits. For a rifle, you can build up a stockpile of spare parts in peace time, and deliver an uninterrupted supply of parts to match the breakdown rate. There is no need to predict which part might break down in order to meaningfully anticipate and prepare. You can also distribute production optimally (close to raw material sources or low-cost talent for instance), since there is no need to locate craftsmen near the point-of-use.

So when interchangeability was finally achieved and had diffused through the economy as standard practice (a process that took about 65 years), demand-management complexity moved to the supply chain, and most problems could be solved by distributing inventories appropriately." Annotated link
history  economic  technology  innovation  manufacturing  interchangeable  industrial  18c  19c  country(UnitedStates)  country(GreatBritain)  military  growth  revolution  capitalism  capital  design 
april 2012 by tsuomela
The Institutional Revolution: Measurement and the Economic Emergence of the Modern World, Allen
"In The Institutional Revolution, Douglas W. Allen offers a thought-provoking account of another, quieter revolution that took place at the end of the eighteenth century and allowed for the full exploitation of the many new technological innovations. Fundamental to this shift were dramatic changes in institutions, or the rules that govern society, which reflected significant improvements in the ability to measure performance—whether of government officials, laborers, or naval officers—thereby reducing the role of nature and the hazards of variance in daily affairs. Along the way, Allen provides readers with a fascinating explanation of the critical roles played by seemingly bizarre institutions, from dueling to the purchase of one’s rank in the British Army."
book  publisher  history  18c  institutions  revolution  organizations 
january 2012 by tsuomela
Ecological Headstand: "Cultural Conservatives": Prophets of Deceit
"Horkheimer described the book's theme in his foreword to the five volume series:

The agitator's technique of persuasion, the mechanism of mediation that translates inchoate feeling into specific belief and action make up the theme of that volume. As mediator between the world and the individual psyche, the agitator molds already existing prejudices and tendencies into overt doctrines and ultimately into overt action."
politics  propaganda  conservative  revolution  critical-theory 
august 2011 by tsuomela
History and Heartbreak: The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg | The Nation
Rosa Luxemburg’s letters have been published in English before, but this collection, of which about two-thirds are newly translated, has delivered to us a real, recognizable human being. In the previous volumes, Luxemburg often seemed uniformly heroic
book  review  letters  history  socialism  20c  revolution  humanism 
april 2011 by tsuomela
Blogs and Bullets: Breaking Down Social Media - Whimsley
Differentiates some of the categories that connect social media and political change.
social-media  networks  politics  vocabulary  definition  revolution  change 
april 2011 by tsuomela
Principle, pragmatism and the American Revolution : The New Yorker
"What did the American Revolution look like? Nathaniel Hawthorne imagined it as an angry face, painted so as to appear divided in two. “One side of the face blazed of an intense red, while the other was black as midnight,” he wrote. "
book  review  american  american-studies  history  revolution  politics  tea-party 
april 2011 by tsuomela
Obama on Libya - The Real Obama Doctrine - Esquire
"This negotiating tactic does an excellent job of uncovering the actual global demand out there for America's intervention
country(Libya)  foreign-affairs  foreign-policy  military  intervention  revolution  defense 
march 2011 by tsuomela
Charting the Wild Winds of Change in 2011 | The Nation
"At its best, revolution is an urban phenomenon. Suburbia is counterrevolutionary by design. For revolution, you need to converge, to live in public, to become the public, and that’s a geographical as well as a political phenomenon. The history of revolution is the history of great public spaces: the Place de la Concorde during the French Revolution
revolution  rebellion  change  politics  middle-east  urbanism  public-space  suburbia 
march 2011 by tsuomela
A clash of networks and institutions | 2.0.2 |
"The shift of balance from the institutional society to the network society will topple dictators, bring down governments, occasionally create terror and mayhem, create economic risk and opportunity, and quickly eliminate some traditional civic and state institutions. Things will seem stable one minute and unstable the next. Sometimes institutional power will out for good or bad (as depressingly seems to be the case in Libya- not least because of the weakness of international institutions.) Often though, institutions and their leaders will be crushed by the power of networks. It creates new possibilities alongside new risks. Our success as a movement is determined by our ability to build enduring institutions of change out of networks of outrage. Wisconsin, Egypt, Tunisia, London, have all found themselves caught in this shift. Social media is only the very superficial surface of this"
networks  social-media  protests  change  revolution 
march 2011 by tsuomela
The “Twitter Can’t Topple Dictators” Article » Pressthink
"So these are the six signs that identify the genre, Twitter Can’t Topple Dictators. 1.) Nameless fools are staking maximalist claims. 2.) No links we can use to check the context of those claims. 3.) The masses of deluded people make an appearance so they can be ridiculed. 4.) Bizarre ideas get refuted with a straight face. 5.) Spurious historicity. 6.) The really hard questions are skirted."
technology-effects  twitter  facebook  revolution  political-science  politics  rhetoric  journalism  genre  media 
march 2011 by tsuomela
Real and Fake Realism « Easily Distracted
"And so again and again, the realists, pundits and technocrats and advisors, find themselves dully amazed to be on the wrong side of history, staring forlornly from a ditch at the side of the road as their ride disappears into the distance. Eventually they pick themselves up, dust themselves off and say, “I knew it all along”. And a few days after that, “We must be realists about what will happen next”, as they restore a managerial composure, make scenarios, wargame out the possibilities, repaint and reframe what was for them a black swan event."
politics  revolution  change  realism  management  business-as-usual  liberalism 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Views: The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted - Inside Higher Ed
"The role of social networking and online communication in anti-authoritarian uprisings is a topic that gained special currency during the protests over the Iranian presidential election in June 2009. And the discussion often resonates with the familiar themes of what might be called the new digital populism: established authority shaking in its boots before the distributed power of the ‘netitizens. Watching American television coverage of the Egyptian events, in particular, one could be forgiven for supposing that new media sparked the uprising, since nothing in that country’s history over the past three decades is discussed as much as the arrival of Twitter and Facebook."
politics  revolution  social-media  change  twitter  facebook  communication 
february 2011 by tsuomela
The Twitter Revolution Must Die
"So why does the image of a revolution enabled by social media continue to grab headlines and spark the interest of Western audiences, and what are the dangers of employing such imagery? My fear is that the hype about a Twitter/Facebook/YouTube revolution performs two functions: first, it depoliticizes our understanding of the conflicts, and second, it whitewashes the role of capitalism in suppressing democracy."
politics  revolution  social-media  change  twitter  facebook  communication  capitalism  conflict 
february 2011 by tsuomela
WikiLeaks Lessons: The Party of We — Already in Control
"What's most important is the tipping point, spawned not by Assange but by a new body politic — a new party of individuals bonded by commonality of interest not defined by national or geographic boundaries. The Party of We.

In response to the attacks on Wikileaks, this virtual We Party, comprised of citizens of the world, unleashed an unprecedented — and united — attack on parts of the infrastructure that transact payments and sustain eCommerce and for a brief moment shut critical parts of it down.

This was unprecedented not because it hasn't been tried before (even with some success), but because its success, however brief the moment may have been, was only reversed by those who started it and who had a change of heart. Furthermore, it was novel in its motivation not to hack a system or engage in fraud or greed, but rather in support of a cause — a belief in the idea and purity of unencumbered speech."
politics  internet  wikileaks  government  revolution  centralization  censorship  control  networks  power 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Internet is easy prey for governments -
"For all that the revolution in Egypt tells us about the power of networked media to promote bottom-up change, it even more starkly reveals the limits of our internet tools and the ease with which those holding power can take them away.

Yes, services such as Twitter and Facebook give activists the means to organize as never before. But the more dependent on them we become, the more subservient we are to the corporations and governments that control them."
politics  networks  control  revolution  power  centralization  censorship  government 
february 2011 by tsuomela
slacktivist: Don't you know that you can count me out
"The tea party and the loudest, most strident voices of anti-abortion politics love to flirt with the idea of armed revolution. This is, for the most part, just adolescent foolishness -- a kind of fantasy play-acting that can be summed up in a single word:


By pretending to believe that America is on the verge of collapse into a totalitarian tyranny, they can pretend to themselves that they are the vanguard of a courageous resistance. The Red Dawn fantasy isn't all that different from any other childhood fantasy about what if there were dragons? And what if I was brave and good and strong? And what if I slew the dragon and everybody cheered for me because I was brave and good and strong and I slew the dragon? Wouldn't that be cool?"
tea-party  politics  revolution  violence  reform  fantasy  psychology  ideology  right-wing  conservatism  just-war  cognition  dissonance  loyalty  con  fraud  media 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Julian Assange and the Computer Conspiracy; “To destroy this invisible government” « zunguzungu
Most of the news media seems to be losing their minds over Wikileaks without actually reading these essays, even though he describes the function and aims of an organization like Wikileaks in pretty straightforward terms. But, to summarize, he begins by describing a state like the US as essentially an authoritarian conspiracy, and then reasons that the practical strategy for combating that conspiracy is to degrade its ability to conspire, to hinder its ability to “think” as a conspiratorial mind. The metaphor of a computing network is mostly implicit, but utterly crucial: he seeks to oppose the power of the state by treating it like a computer and tossing sand in its diodes.
wikileaks  secrecy  authoritarian  revolution  conspiracy  collective-intelligence 
december 2010 by tsuomela
PublicAffairs Books: THE NET DELUSION
In this spirited book, journalist and social commentator Evgeny Morozov shows that by falling for the supposedly democratizing nature of the Internet, Western do-gooders may have missed how it also entrenches dictators, threatens dissidents, and makes it harder—not easier—to promote democracy. Buzzwords like "21st-century statecraft" sound good in PowerPoint presentations, but the reality is that "digital diplomacy" requires just as much oversight and consideration as any other kind of diplomacy.
internet  freedom  culture  politics  revolution 
november 2010 by tsuomela
How dictators watch us on the web – Prospect Magazine « Prospect Magazine
Evgeny Morozov   18th November 2009  "The internet is meant to help activists, enable democratic protest and weaken the grip of authoritarian regimes. But it doesn’t—in fact, the web is a boon for bullies"
politics  power  social-media  social-networking  twitter  facebook  revolution  government 
october 2010 by tsuomela / Comment / Opinion - On the brink of a new age of rage
by Simon Schama - "Historians will tell you there is often a time-lag between the onset of economic disaster and the accumulation of social fury. In act one, the shock of a crisis initially triggers fearful disorientation; the rush for political saviours; instinctive responses of self-protection, but not the organised mobilisation of outrage. Whether in 1789 or now, an incoming regime riding the storm gets a fleeting moment to try to contain calamity. If it is seen to be straining every muscle to put things right it can, for a while, generate provisional legitimacy."
economics  recession  crisis  business  banking  finance  justice  revolution  anger  emotion  politics  history 
june 2010 by tsuomela
Books of The Times - ‘Marx’s General’ by Tristram Hunt - Humanizing Engels - Review -
In his new book, “Marx’s General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels,” Tristram Hunt argues that Engels has become a convenient scapegoat, too easily blamed for the state crimes of the Soviet Union and Communist Southeast Asia and China.
marxism  history  communism  19c  revolution  capitalism  about(KarlMarx) 
august 2009 by tsuomela
fisking miller and rachman’s revolutionary check-list «
The Economist’s Andrew Miller, a.k.a. Bagehot, has engaged Gideon Rachman of the Financial Times in a back-and-forth about the building blocks of revolution. They list criteria that would, if met, point toward revolution in Iran and they conclude that most of these antecedents are present in Iran today, suggesting that revolution is at possibly hand.
revolution  politics  change  iran  social 
july 2009 by tsuomela
Intellectuals at the Gates by Adam Kirsch, City Journal 6 March 2008
Democracy Denied, 1905–1915: Intellectuals and the Fate of Democracy, by Charles Kurzman
intellectual  revolution  history  sociology  change  politics  1h20c  1900s  1910s 
march 2009 by tsuomela

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